Cookery Collections

Nearly every house has a cookbook, assorted favorite recipes and household manuals, even if they don’t realize it. Cookbooks, next to religious texts, are probably the most widely owned and recognized form of literature, at least in the Western world.

Dating back to nearly the tenth century, the earliest cookbooks in the Arabic, Asia, and European areas were for the high class, consisting mainly of favorite dishes and cultural references of the author with little information on the actual making of the dish.

As cookbooks continued to evolve, they began noting more information on reproducing the dishes, but still were mainly for the upper classes. Common dishes and peasant food were not included in these early recipe books.

However, the Industrial Revolution brought about the rise of the middle class. Cookbooks were no longer musing of rich men and haute cuisine. The Victorian era brought about the cookbooks for common domestics and housewives. They began to include more specific instructions on quantity and cooking times, as well as household management tips and guides.

As technology progressed, the everyday person gained access to recipes, ingredients, and cookware. This brought about more specialized cookbooks ranging from product driven recipes to regional recipes to cocktail mixing and everything in between.

The University of Tulsa Special Collections has a wide and diverse collection of recipe books and household manuals. Three that are considered staples of the modern Western era are Eliza Acton’s Modern Cookery , Beeton’s Book of Household Management, and Rombauer and Becker’s The Joy of Cooking.

Cookbooks

TX717.A186 1845, TX705 S55 1723 TX717 B44 1969a Undrsz, TX715 R75 1951

Perhaps of more historical value are the rare manuscript cookbooks (TX705.R43 1710z, TX705 M37 1828, and TX153 R43 1900z Undrsz). These handwritten manuscripts date back to the early 18th through 20th centuries and offer unique insights into the style of food, English language, and culture. Complementing the manuscripts is the department’s 1637 edition of The English Housewife (TX144.M37 1637). The quaint language aside, the book offers a treasure trove of authentic British recipe and domestic guidance on subjects relating to managing a household.

Manuscript Cookbook

TX705.R43 1710z

For a glimpse into the gendered, political, and social realm of housekeeping, Special Collections has several works to offer. The English Housekeeper, written by the housekeeper Elizabeth Warburton, provides recipes for the middle to upper class households, complete with diagrams of cooking areas and arrangement of food platters. Lydia Balderston’s Housewifery aims at “professionalizing the work of the home.” Dr. Chase’s Recipes or Information for Everybody is a delightful encyclopedia for just about any topic, including “Female Weakness and Irregularities.” The interesting note for Dr. Chases Recipes is that the listed audience is primarily male while most other books on these topics were written with a female audience in mind. Finally, The Up-to-date Waitress is a fascinating look at female employment in the Victorian era. Published in 1914, the book describes dress, service, maintenance, and various social constructs of upstanding dining establishments where women were employed as waitresses. This is a far cry from waitressing today and provides an interesting look at what the early 20th century considered proper for dining procedures and female employment.

Household Manuals

TX881.H64 1914, TX727.R3 1803, TX145.B3 1936, TX153 C43 1902

Special Collections also has a wonderful assortment of more current and varied recipe books. Ethnic books abound, ranging from Cherokee to Chinese to Greek. Regional and Holiday cook books abound, such as The Route 66 Cookbook that covers regional recipes along the Mother Road’s famous stretch, including Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.

The University of Tulsa’s own is represented with First Lady Peggy Upham’s Peggy’s Table, which highlights recipes from many regions and ethnicities, complied by Mrs. Upham and tested by TU’s own Executive Chef, Tim Anderson.

Contemporary Cookbooks

TX74 U55 2012, TX715.C5778 1993

 

If you have a hankering for meatloaf, Meatloaf: Themes and Variations is the best place to start. For product based recipes, Bisquick and Hasty-Bake have their own cookbooks. Many other product and dish driven cookbooks abound in Special Collections.

Product and Food Cookbooks

TX749.H213 1972 Anderson, TX769.C76 1985 Anderson, TX687 A78 1940z

Last, but not least, is the piece de la resistance! The Savoy Cocktail Book offers an excellent assortment of recipes during the Prohibition. Published in 1930, three years before the reversal of Prohibition, the recipes are grouped by type. If you fancy a toddy, sour, shrub, highball, julep, punch, or coolers, mix up a classic or find a new spin in this fascinating work.

Savoy Cocktails

TX951.C76 1930

Whatever your taste or task may be, the University of Tulsa Special Collections has a cook book or household manual to meet your need. All are available during regular hours, Monday-Friday 8AM to 5PM.

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New in Digital Collections: December 2015

The University of Tulsa Special Collections and University Archives has added new items to our digital collections. Our new items of note include:

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Holiday closing notice

Special Collections and University Archives will be closing this afternoon, Wednesday, December 23, at 5pm for the winter holiday break. We will reopen on Monday, January 4 at 8am.

We wish all our patrons and friends a Merry Christmas and hope you have a happy and healthy new year ahead!

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Fore-Edge Paintings: The Heavens and Seasons

Fore-edge paintings are illustrations worked, usually by watercolor, onto the exposed long edge of pages in a book. When the book is closed, the image or images are usually not visible, but when the pages are fanned out, an intricate and detailed scene suddenly appears.

Illustrations and designs painted onto the edge of book pages date back as far as the 10th century, but artists began concealing them through the fanning process in the mid-1600s. To paint on the fanned edges of a book requires the use of a fore-edge press, which holds the pages in the fanned-out position; one of these tools can be used both to create the illustration and to display it.

This technique was originally used as a way to connect certain books to their owners or institutions, something like a library stamp, but gradually turned into a way of adding something special to books, which were at the time valuable and rare, and often treated as heirlooms. Images tend to be related to the subject of the book—for example, a book of Scottish poetry might have a fore-edge painting of golfers at the famous Old Course at St. Andrew’s in Fife. Other paintings could be religious or even erotic.

Special Collections has a library of books with paintings on their fore-edges, and we have photographed them and put the images into our Digital Collections for easy viewing at this link.

One painting we’d like to highlight is the one on the edge of The Heavens: The Seasons, by Robert Mudie, written in 1836 on the subject of astronomy. The photo below shows the fore-edge painting itself. An old astronomer is fascinated with something in the telescope in his study, surrounded by books and other tools, while his dog looks on. In a humorous background event on the left side of the room, though, the artist painted the doorway into the astronomer’s bedroom, where his wife and apprentice are having sex while he is distracted, and making a cuckold of him.

 

The Heavens: The Seasons

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Holidays, Holidaze

Christmas is a wonderful time of year. It is also an incredibly hectic time for many. Putting down the egg nog, iPad, and to do list is hard the week of Christmas. There are still presents to buy, family to see, food to cook, lights to hang, and all the other stresses that pile up around the holiday season.

Sometimes is it easy to forget what the real meaning of Christmas is. This is true whether you are a “Merry Christmas,” “Happy Holidays,” “Happy Hanukah,” “Happy Kwanzaa,” “Bah, Hambug!” or any other holiday celebrator. Writers throughout the centuries have all taken up the pen to memorialize the meaning of Christmas or criticize the commercialization of the holidays.

McFarlin Special Collection has an exciting assortment of holiday reading material that simply exude holiday spirit. Many are your traditional Christmas fare, but this post is meant to highlight the unique and special books in the department.

No list would be complete without mentioning Charles Dickens’ Christmas Carol. A personal favorite is the 1869 illustrated edition. The illustrations by Solomon Eytinge have set the foundation for how the world currently interpret Dicken’s work. Eytinge’s illustration of Tiny Tim on Bob Crachet’s shoulders was the first time the scene had been illustrated and has become the iconic image associated with Christmas Carol.

PR4572 C68 1869

PR4572 C68 1869

Preceding Christmas Carol by two decades is Washington Irving’s The Old Christmas. This delightful tome is a quick read but reveals how several British Christmas customs transferred to the new United States. Irving’s charming prose and the delightful illustration are sure to delight even the Scrooges.

A lesser known, but more light work of fiction, is Agatha Christie’s The Adventure of the Christmas Pudding is actually a collection of short works that include “The Adventure of the Christmas Pudding,” “The Mystery of the Spanish Chest,” “The Under Dog,” “Four and Twenty Blackbirds,” “The Dream,” and “Greenshaw’s Folly.” Heclue Poirot amuses and amazes his counterparts as he sleuths his way through the stories while Miss Marple delights in “Greenshaw’s Folly.”

Moving to less traditional styles Christmas writing is the 1928 autographed copy of e.e. cummings’ Christmas Tree. Christmas Tree is a refreshing poem to a holiday icon. In a similar vein but very different style is T.S. Eliot’s The Cultivation of Christmas Trees. Eliot wrote six poems exploring the theme of wonder in the holiday times.

PS3505 U334 C47 1928 Wilson

PS3505 U334 C47 1928 Wilson

Thomas Nast’s Christmas Compendium shows the wonderful construction of Santa that still directs the Santa image today. Nast created the jovial, cherub cheek Santa that we all have come to expect and love during the holiday. The Christmas Compendium is a collection of some of Nast’s most famous sketches of St. Nick.

741.5 N269 Th

741.5 N269 Th

Last, but not least, is Queen Alexandra’s Christmas Gift Book. Originally published in 1908 as a means of raising money for charity, the work is an inside look at Britain royal family. Each photograph was taken by Queen Alexandra and captures the life of King George, Queen Alexandra, various royals and aristocrats, including the King of Denmark, Empress of Russia, and King of Greece. While not Christmas in content, the work is an excellent example of Christmas memorabilia from the turn of the century.

UNF 0000662

UNF 0000662

Each book is available at the University of Tulsa McFarlin Library Special Collections during regular business hours. Happy holidays to one and all.

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TU Speaks the Flower Language

language of flowers 2The Special Collections at the University of Tulsa contains many works about myriad of subjects. I have discovered many interesting volumes when browsing the shelves. The most recent finds are three small tomes regarding the meanings and symbolism associated with flowers: The Language of Flowers with illustrative poetry; to which are now added the calendar of flowers and the dial of flowers published in 1838, The Sentiment of Flowers or language of Flora published in 1837, and The Language of Flowers by Margaret Pickston published in 1968.
IMAG1395Symbolism and hidden meanings have been associated with objects for millennia. The flower language originated in Napoleonic France from eighteenth century themes and ideas. The language of flowers seems to be based on Western conceptions of Oriental courtship. By the nineteenth century Europeans associated flowers with the language of love. This symbolic dialect reached its height in the Victorian era.
Many books were published on the subject, however the exact meanings were never agreed upon by authors or publishers and specific flower meanings could vary in different publications. These books were often given as prizes or gifts. These little books often presented unique, specific meanings and poetry attributed to each plant. Many of these volumes were accompanied with detailed colored illustrations.
These popular flower publications were intended for female readers. However, the continued industrialization and urbanization of the twentieth century de-emphasized the botanical natural world. The views and roles of women began to shift. The ‘sentimental’ natural symbolic associations became old fashioned and these types of publications began to decline.

language of flowers 3

Some of the common plant meanings are:
Basil – hate
Buttercup – ingratitude
Corn – riches
Daffodil – self-love
Daisy – innocence
Grass – utility
Holly – foresight
Honeysuckle – generous and devoted affection
Ivy – friendship
Lavender – mistrust
Mignonette – your qualities surpass your charms
Narcissus – self-love
Parsley – festivity
Rosemary – your presence revives me
Snowdrop – hope
Strawberry – perfection
Sunflower – false riches
Tansy – I declare war against you
Tulip – declaration of love
Violet – modesty

References:
Seaton, Beverly. The Language of Flowers: A History. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995. Print

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Two Bills but Only One Wild West: The Joseph T. McCaddon collection of William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody and Gordon William “Pawnee Bill” Lillie papers

Part 2: Pawnee Bill

Portrait of Gordon William Lillie as "Pawnee Bill".

Portrait of Gordon William Lillie as “Pawnee Bill”.

In 1895, Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show traveled to 131 stands in 190 days, covering a route of 9,000 miles, requiring the use of 52 railway cars! And, although Buffalo Bill’s barnstorming tours were highly profitable, the travel was torturous—in 1896 the show traveled 10,000 miles to 132 stops. In 1897 it played 104 cities—taking its toll on an aging and ailing Cody, on the stock and show animals, and on the personnel and performers—by the early 1900s, Cody began frequently announcing to audiences his plan to retire.

"...These long unnecessary runs hard on people and animals..." Cody to McCaddon.

“…These long unnecessary runs hard on people and animals…” Cody to McCaddon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cody agrees to the sale of the Bailey interest to Lillie.

Cody agrees to the sale of the Bailey interest to Lillie.

Official letterhead.

Official letterhead for the new show.

However, in 1908, after much negotiation with Bailey’s executors and Colonel Cody, Gordon W. “Pawnee Bill” Lillie purchased Bailey’s interest in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West—Lillie would act as business manager (for which he had superb acumen) and Cody as showman (undeniably his forte). They agreed to call their combined shows “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Pawnee Bill’s Great Far East, popularly known as the “Two Bill’s” show.

Hemment's logo.

Hemment’s ornate logo.

About the Photographer:  John C. Hemment, “The Instantaneous Photographer”, is credited with shooting the 206 photographs mounted in McCaddon’s photo album. The faded, sepia-toned images feature a variety of arena acts, performers, and behind-the-scenes activities from Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show of 1899.   Hemment specialized in the photo-documentation of current events in the areas of politics, culture, and sports; but, he is probably best known for his book, Cannon and Camera; Sea and Land Battles of the Spanish-American war in Cuba; Camp Life, and the Return of the Soldier, in which he chronicles his experiences in Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

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Two Bills but Only One Wild West: The Joseph T. McCaddon collection of William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody and Gordon William “Pawnee Bill” Lillie papers

Book plate pasted on the front fly leaf of McCaddon’s photo album.

Book plate pasted on the front fly leaf of McCaddon’s photo album.

Sneak a peek under the proverbial circus tent of the Joseph T. McCaddon collection and you’ll catch a glimpse of the excitement and drama played out in the Wild West arenas of the Buffalo Bill Cody and Pawnee Bill shows. You’ll also get a taste of the behind-the-scenes tension of managing and maintaining the “Two Bills” enterprises.

Included in this mixed collection: 1) a series of letters, trans-Atlantic cablegrams, and telegrams, primarily between McCaddon, Colonel Cody, and Ben Hutchinson (Cody’s business manager), offering insight into the business of and internal politics within Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show; 2) what remains of a photo album containing 206 photographs featuring scenes from the 1899 Wild West show, taken both from the spectator’s viewpoint and behind-the-scenes; 3) samples of Pawnee Bill’s presentation and promotional material for his shows; and 4) a sampling of photographs and snapshots featuring Pawnee Bill’s Old Town Indian Trading Post and scenes from his ranch situated near Pawnee, Oklahoma.

As for Joseph T. McCaddon—he began his career as manager of the Adam Forepaugh Circus but later joined the Barnum & Bailey Circus as its general business manager.   As manager, McCaddon represented Bailey in many business matters, including Bailey’s 1894 purchase of a controlling interest in William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show.   After Bailey’s death, McCaddon remained active in the business, acting as representative for his sister, Ruth McCaddon Bailey (Bailey’s widow) in her business dealings with the Circus and with the “Two Bills” enterprises.

Part 1: Buffalo Bill’s Wild West

Portrait of William Frederick Cody as "Buffalo Bill"

Portrait of William Frederick Cody as “Buffalo Bill”

Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show was at its most lucrative when it played long engagements in places like Staten Island, London, and other European locations.   And, although the show was enjoying the most successful season in its history, having set up adjacent to the Colombian Exposition in Chicago (1893), it was evident that the show was running out of places to perform.   So it was that an idea was hatched that would eventually draw James A. Bailey into the affairs of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West.

A page from the album featuring three views of Buffalo Bill in the show arena.

A page from the album featuring three views of Buffalo Bill in the show arena.

In 1894, a unique contractual arrangement was made between Bailey and William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody—Colonel Cody would supply everything pertaining to the performance (performers’ salaries, livestock and props, lighting equipment, advertising material, programs and tickets, feed and groceries) and Bailey would furnish the cars, baggage stock and wagons, tents, seats, the cost of the show lots, licenses, and railroad transportation. Both parties would split the proceeds and concession profit.

Next time:  Part 2:  Pawnee Bill

Bad weather and ticket prices--Cody writes to James Bailey.

Bad weather and ticket prices–Cody writes to James Bailey.

Money issues--a stern message from McCaddon to Cody.

Money issues–a stern message from McCaddon to Cody.

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D H Lawrence’s famous ‘Lover’

David Herbert (D. H.) Lawrence is one of the most versatile and influential figures in 20th-century literature. Best known for his novels, Lawrence was also an accomplished poet, short story writer, essayist, critic, and travel writer. The controversial themes for which he is remembered – namely, the celebration of sensuality in an over-intellectualized world – and his relationship with censors sometimes overshadowed the work of a master craftsman and profound thinker.

His novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover is one of the most famous banned books in the literary world. The book soon became notorious for its story of the physical (and emotional) relationship between a working class man and an upper class woman, its explicit descriptions of sex, and its use of then-unprintable words. Besides the evident sexual content of the book, Lady Chatterley’s Lover also presents some views on the British social context of the early 20th century. There are many reviews of this book that praise how D.H.Lawrence captured the class distinctions that prevailed during that time.

IMG_20151209_115730772

Lady Chatterley’s Lover printed in 1928

The first edition was printed privately in Florence, Italy, with assistance from Pino Orioli; an unexpurgated edition could not be published openly in the United Kingdom until 1960. In December 1929, Lady Chatterley was banned in the United States after its publication in 1928.  The Department of Special Collection and University Archives at McFarlin Library has a vast collection of various editions.

IMG_20151209_121045

Some other works of D.H. Lawrence in Special Collections

Among other fictional works of D.H. Lawrence, Special Collections also has many volumes of The White Peacock, Sons and Lovers, and The Rainbow. Each book is available at the University of Tulsa McFarlin Library Special Collections during regular business hours.

References:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Chatterley%27s_Lover

http://www.gradesaver.com/author/d-lawrence

http://nishitak.com/2011/08/17/lady-chatterleys-lover-a-book-review/

http://www.theguardian.com/books/2010/oct/24/lawrence-lady-chatterley-review

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New in Digital Collections: November 2015 Update

Special Collections and University Archives at the University of Tulsa added some new items of interest to our digital collections website during the month of November.

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